Assembler: A program that translates a program written in assembly language into an
equivalent program in machine code.
Assembly language: A user-oriented programming language that is close to machine code
in form but that uses English operation codes and symbolic labels to refer to memory
Batch operating system: An early second-generation operating system in which user
requests were recorded in groups and run through the computer in one batch. Each user
request included simple commands to the operating system (load, compile, and so on) as
well as the user’s program and data.
Binding: The process of associating a symbolic name with a physical memory address.
Command language: A simple set of commands to an operating system, usually batch or
with a text-based interface, with which a user can access the system software.
Compiler: A program that translates a high-level programming language (for example,
Java or C++) into a low-level one (for example, assembly language).
Deadlock prevention: The operating system uses resource allocation algorithms that
prevent deadlocks from occurring in the first place.
Encryption: The process of storing important information in a form that cannot be read
without access to the proper encryption/decryption algorithm and keys.
Graphical user interface: A user interface that gives an intuitive visual view of the
computer (or if it is an application program, of the program itself and its data).
High-level programming language: A programming language whose structure is very
abstract and distinct from the computer architecture.
I/O System: A part of the system software that manages the various input and output
Interpreter: A program that run a program in a high-level programming language without
first creating a low-level version.
Label: A name placed at the beginning of an instruction.
Low-level programming language: A programming language whose structure closely
resembles that of the underlying computer architecture and its machine code.
Memory manager: A part of the system software that manages the loading of programs
and data into the computer’s memory.
Network operating system: An operating system that exists on a computer network and
manages the resources of a single computer and the capabilities of a local area network (LAN).
Operating system: The program that controls the overall operation of the computer and
manages the different programs that provide services to the user.
Parallel processing operating system: Can efficiently manage computer systems
containing tens, hundreds, or even thousands of processors.
Pass: The process of examining and processing every assembly language instruction in the
program, one instruction at a time.
Password: A secret code string used to verify that the person requesting access to a
computer is the person that he or she is claiming to be.
Password file: Stores all valid user name/password combinations.
Privileged operation codes: Use was restricted to the operating system or other system
Scheduler: A part of the system software that manages which other programs get access to
Source program: A program written in assembly language.
System software: A collection of computer programs that manage the resources of a
computer and facilitate access to those resources.
Time-sharing operating system: A multiprogramming operating system in which many
users and programs appear to run at one time; access to the CPU is measured out in “time
slices” and shared among all processes.
User interface: The way in which the end user communicates with the computer.
>User name:A special name used to identify a particular user of a computer system;
required to be unique.
User operation codes: Can be included in any user program,
Virtual machine: The set of services and resources created by the system software that
hides the details of the underlying machine.