Device driver: A program that interacts with an I/O device.
Divide and conquer: A problem-solving approach.
Encapsulation: Each class has its own program module to perform each of its subtasks.
External libraries: Collections of well-written, efficient, and thoroughly tested FORTRAN code modules that are separately compiled and then drawn on by any program that wishes to use their capabilities.
Fact: Expresses a property about a single object or a relationship among several objects.
Flow of control: The path through the program that is traced by following the currently executing statement.
Functional programming language: A programming language that views every task in terms of functions.
Garbage collection: The process of reclaiming memory no longer needed by the program.
Identifiers: Names in a programming language.
If-else statement: Instruction that carries out conditional flow of control.
Inference engine: A piece of software that is supplied as part of the compiler or interpreter in a logic programming language; allows the programmer to interact with the program by posing queries.
Infinite loop: Program that contains an infinite loop will execute forever.
Inheritance: Once a class A of objects is defined, a class B of objects can be defined as a “subclass” of A.
Input statement: Collects a specific value from the user for a variable within the program.
Integrated Development Environment (IDE): Lets the programmer perform a number of tasks within the shell of a single application program, rather than having to use a separate program for each task.
Literal string: Printed out exactly as is.
Logic programming: Programming in which various facts are asserted to be true, and on the basis of these facts, a program can infer or deduce other facts.
Microsoft .NET Framework: A collection of tools for software development that was designed so that traditional text-based applications, GUI applications, and Web-based programs could all be built with equal ease.
Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL): The language into which .NET programs are compiled; the MSIL code is later compiled into object code.
Neural networks: Networks patterned after the human brain; can involve massive interconnections of many extremely simple devices.
Objects: Instances of classes.
Output statement: Writes a message or the value of a program variable to the user’s screen.
Paradigm: A model or mental framework for representing or thinking about something.
Parallel processing: Computing architectures and approaches to algorithms that involve the simultaneous use of two or more processors.
Parameter list: List of variables local to the function that will receive their values from the corresponding argument list when the function is invoked.
Pointer: A data type in the C language that is used to refer to memory addresses.
Polymorphism: Objects may provide services that should logically have the same name because they do roughly the same thing, but the details differ.
Primitive functions: Functions in a functional programming language that are defined as part of the language.
Procedural languages: Languages in which a program consists of sequences of statements that manipulate data items; it is the programmer’s task to devise the appropriate step-by-step sequence of instructions to be carried out by the computer to accomplish the desired task.
Prologue comment: Introductory comment that comes first.
Query interpreter: An inference engine.
Sentinel value: One extra integer that is not part of the legitimate data but is instead a signal that there are no more data.
Side effect: Occurs when a function, in the course of acting on its argument values to produce a result value, also changes other values that it has no business changing.
Syntax: The correct form for each component of the language.
Tags: Special characters in an HTML document that achieve formatting, special effects, and references to other HTML documents.
Type casting: Changing of data type.
Variables: Values that are not known ahead of time but must be obtained from the computer user as the program runs.